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HIST 284: History of Hawaii (Ickes): Primary & Secondary Sources

About Primary & Secondary Sources

This page can help you find primary and secondary sources for research projects you may need to complete for this class.  Some of the resources featured in the boxes below are better for finding either primary or secondary sources but most of those resources contain both types of materials.


Primary sources include: diaries, memoirs, letters and other correspondence, artistic works, speeches, interviews, legal documents, statistics, results of scientific research, photographs, maps.


Secondary sources include: newspaper, journal and magazine articles, biographies, book reviews.


Finding Primary Sources

To find primary sources you may search:


- Papakilo database: 

- Ulukau (Hawaiian Electronic Library): 

- Hawaiian Nūpepa Collection: 

- ‘Ulu’ulu moving images archive:

- Hawaii State Archives Digital Collections:

- ProQuest News & Newspapers: 

Search ProQuest News & Newspapers to find newspaper articles from Honolulu Star Advertiser, Honolulu Advertiser and Honolulu Star Bulletin from ~1990's until today. If you would like to find older articles from those newspapers you may find them in microfilm at our library. When searching for newspaper articles remember that many newspaper articles are not primary sources!


You may also search the following resources:


Note: the resources above may be particularly useful to find primary resources but you may also find both primary and secondary resources by searching Primo our library collection search tool where you can search within some of the databases featured in the "Finding articles, books & more..." box on the right side of this page.

Finding articles, books & more...

To find books, ebooks, articles, and media: search Primo, our library collection search tool.

To find articles and ebooks: you may find articles and ebooks by searching our library databases. Click here to see the complete list of Leeward CC databases.

Some databases you may consider searching for your "Understanding the Historical Roots and Historical Development..." research paper include:

You may also find resources for your research by searching the following: 

  • eVols: Open-access, digital institutional repository for the University of Hawaii community and researchers around the world.
  • Scholar Space: An open-access, digital institutional repository for the University of Hawaii at Manoa community. 
  • Google Scholar: here you may find articles, theses, books, abstracts, and much more.